The first cryptographers were found around 1900 BC in Egypt when an Egyptian scribe used nonstandard hieroglyphs in an inscription. Around 500-600 BC Hebrew scribes writing down the book of Jeremiah used a reversed-alphabet simple substitution cipher known as ATBASH.

725-790 Abu `Abd al-Rahman al-Khalil ibn Ahmad ibn `Amr ibn Tammam al Farahidi al-Zadi al Yahmadi wrote a (now lost) book on cryptography, inspired by his solution of a cryptogram in Greek for the Byzantine emperor. His solution was based on known (correctly guessed) plaintext at the message start -- a standard cryptanalytic method, used even in WW-II against Enigma messages.

In the 1790's Thomas Jefferson, possibly aided by Dr. Robert Patterson (a mathematician at U. Penn.), invented his wheel cipher. This was re-invented in several forms later and used in WW-II by the US Navy as the Strip Cipher, M-138-A.

Just so you know, Ray was NOT the first cryptographer.

Ray was from Queens, NY. He enlisted in the cadet program in high school which meant that you would be called up after graduation and not drafted which hopefully meant you got a better choice of what you would be. He was called up in December of 1943 at 18 years of age.

He was first sent to Miami Beach for his basic training. He said this wasn't too bad - Miami Beach from Queens, NY - a hotel for a barracks. But there was no elevator and he was on a high floor and he was always forgetting something soooooooo when it was time to report you had to run like crazy back up and back down those stairs in the heat! After basic in Miami he was sent to Denver to armament school. From there he went for three months to Las Vegas for aerial gunnery school where they wanted to make him a ball turret gunner on a B-17. Seeing as how he had hurt his back loading ammunition in armament school and seeing how sitting in the belly of a B-17 didn't look all that exciting to him he chose to become something else and off he went to another school. This time to Alamagordo, New Mexico.

Ray was assigned to the 16th Bomb Group in Fairmont, NE at the end of 1944.

In March of 1945 Ray went to Seattle then the SS Exchange then to Hawaii and then on a convoy ship to Guam where he landed April of 1945. While first on Guam they built barracks, huts and whatever else was needed.

Ray learned his cryptography "on the job". When I asked Ray about the codes he said that all the Allied Forces all over the world used the same codes. These changed every six hours. They had recognition signals, challenge, reply, and flare signals. There was a code book for the radio operators which was turned in after every flight. The radio operators would call in their strike reports and may day calls.

NW Field Guam Work on taxi strip #2

The cryptographers worked 8 hour shifts 24 hours a day.

I asked Ray where he was when the war ended and he said he was asleep. His shift had ended and someone came in when they saw the strike report and told everyone what had happened.

He could not return to the US right away as everyone when home on the point system. So he remained there for seven more boring months. He returned on April of 1946. He went to NYU in the fall of 1946 and that is where he met his lovely wife Fran.

Below are many photos of Guam that Ray was kind enough to bring to my home to allow me to scan. Ray pointed out to me that some of the B29's had not armament nor side bubbles - you all that know me, know that I get so excited when I look over someone's WWII photos that I sometimes miss the details - when he pointed it out - I asked why.

Ray said that all 315th planes were unarmed except for tail guns. They had closed up the slide blisters and the top gun and that they flew at night. This made them much lighter and they could take on more fuel and more bombs. They also did not fly in formation.

Enjoy the photos. If you have any questions, you can reach Ray here.

Anyone recognize this man?

Third Marine Section


Quaint Church

Some armorers on Guam

B-29 looking good

Boneyard on Guam

Ray's friend Charlie Fine

Charlie Fine & Shelly

Another church

B-29 taking off

NW field Guam Photo Recon P-38's
H 331st BG ......H L 502 BG

Guam, NW Field 16th Group
planes peeling off.

Guam Headed south on Marine Drive. Remains of traps set by Japanese to prevent landings.

North Field Guam Taxi strip #1

Cemetery at Asam - Where the
Third Marine Division landed Guam

B-24 coming in at Harmon
Field Guam Air Depot

16th Bomb Group

NW Field Guam

NW Field Guam

Barracks Area


16th Bomb Group Missions
Mission #
Flying Time
# of Planes
Utsube River Oil Refinery, Yokkaishi, Japan 13hrs.42 mins
Nippon Oil Company, Kudamatsu, Japan 14hrs. 35mins
Narusen Oil Refinery, Mincshima, Japan 13hrs. 37mins
Narusen Oil Refinery, Mincshima, Japan 14hrs. 0 min
Utsube River Oil Refinery, Yokkaishi, Japan 13hrs. 21min
Petroleum Center, Kawasaki, Japan 14hrs. 12min
Nippon Oil Company, Kudamatso, Japan 15hrs. 10min
Nippon Oil Refinery and Tank Farm, Amagasaki, Japan 14hrs. 33min.
Ube Coal Liquafaction Company, Ube, Japan 15hrs. 14min
Nitsubishi Oil Refinery and Hayaha Petroleum Refinery, Kawasaki, Japan 13hrs. 58min
Shimotsu Oil Refinery, Shimotru, Japan 14hrs. 06min
Nitsubishi Oil Refinery and Hayama Petroleum Refinery, Kawasaki, Japan 13hrs. 58min
Ube Coal Liquafaction Company, Ube, Japan 15hrs. 15min
Nippon Oil Refinery, Amagasaki, Japan 14hrs. 21 min
Nippon Oil refinery, Akita, Japan 17hrs. 55min

These were missions completed by the 15th, 16th, 17th, squadrons of the 315th Wing


Junked B-24's & B-29's on Guam

Japanese gun on the beach at Guam


NW Field Guam P-51's

I believe the mess hall is in the back.

Plane coming in NW field

A friend of mine in front of #7,
Loaded Dice

The rear end of a B29 showing the radar equipment for the tail guns and the group insignia.

16th BG B-29.

Working on runways

Houses in the village

Guam- Apra Harbor- Sumay

Enlisted men's beach. Now an
expensive condo area.

The Navy's exclusive beach -
Hoover Park.


Native Children

Our old theater

Our new theater

Post war homes in the village
of Dneraja

Apra Harbor

Headquarters area. 16th Bomb
group Wash room and showers.

Sunken Japanese ship on the East
coast of Guam (high tide).

Our latrine and the lake around it after a rain. The barracks is on the extreme left. Note the water up to the door.

Two man Japanese sub

Japanese POW's march to work

Ray at the lister bag

Warning Leaflet Dropped Over Japanese Cities Prior to Bombing


Don't you think you should save the lives of your family and friends? If you want to save them, please read this leaflet very carefully. Within a few days, the American Air Force will bomb military facilities in four or five cities shown on the other side of this leaflet. They are military facilities and factories which produce military weapons. In order to prolong the war, which your military cannot win by using these weapons, the Americans will destroy all these weapons. However, our bombs do not have eyes, so we do not know where these bombs will drop. As you know, America is a democracy so we do not hurt innocent people, therefore please abandon these cities on the front side of this leaflet. You are not the American enemy. Therefore we do not want to bring you into the war. Your military army is the enemy. The peace the American Army seeks is freeing you from your military. If we make you free from your military we can make a better, new Japan. Why don't you choose a new leader who will bring peace and stop the war? There might be a possibility that we may bomb cities that are not listed on the front of this leaflet but we will bomb at least four of the cities on this leaflet. This is a warning to let you know so that you can get away from these cities.

Here are the city names from the left:
Tokyo, Ujiyamada, Tsu, Kooriyama, Hakodate, Nagaoka, Uwajima, Kurume, Ichinomiya, Oogaki, Nishinomiya, and Aomori (is the name for both city and prefecture).

(This was translated by one of my oldest and dearest friends, Michiyo Yamazaki Allen, who lives here in Atlanta.) Thank you so much, Michiyo. ~Sallyann

This leaflet and the photos below were all courtesy of Charles Fine, 314th BW, 90th Service Group.



North Field Crash

North Field Crash

North Field Crash

North Field Crash

Coming home on the Breckenridge

Coming home on the Breckenridge

Coming home on the Breckenridge

Coming home on the Breckenridge
I would like to thank Ray Dubner for sharing these wonderful photos with us and for his friend Charlie Fine for sharing some of his photos, some maps and the leaflet. Ray has made several trips to my home in Snellville bringing me the photos and sitting down with me and to choose which photos to scan and talking about his time in Guam as a cryptographer. I~ Sallyann, August 2004

Ray - 1945

Ray - August 2004